Crypto Airdrops have been deployed by Clams, Byteball and Stellar and are an equitable token distribution method comprising issuing tokens to each address on protocols such as Bitcoin on a particular date. They are traded on the open market and Bitcoin owners who prefer using networks can receive a dividend.

Crypto Airdrops exhibit similar characteristics to forks despite forks competing for the same network, however forks constitute a code edit vying with the parent code for attention and can subsequently be launched with universal consent or only a small fragment of users within the parent network.

Blockchain systems are continually developing to update software nodes run on and if these chains are not backwards compatible comprising network messages or blockchain data change they are often termed hard forks. Developers subsequently release updated software announcing a specific block number or time when the change is activated.

Forks consist of new code implementations, experimental projects and arduous contests for a network’s supremacy, consequently for contested hard forks incompatible with previous networks there’s no single arbiter of what constitutes the underlying chain.

Bitcoin’s first contentious hard fork was in 2017 and conversely previously hard forked with the assent of miners to fix technical glitches, despite Ethereum’s centralized leadership it attracted a contentious hard fork in July 2016 that split the community irrevocably.

Ethereum is a network of peers storing the entire blockchain and contains the entirety of network participants. Each mined Ether block gains the winner 5 ETH and it enables users to upload and run code contracts implementing a Turing complete language. The code’s use of executed operation memory bytes cost gas which amounts to a small fraction of an ether.

The contracts may be arbitrarily complicated and comprise the ether balance, they can transfer ether and call other contracts such as users implementing contracts to further users.

Hard forks require near unanimity, are difficult to obtain and avoided however intransigent factions’ perceptions of diplomacy as inaccessible resort to them and subsequent threats to the initial network depend on non-negligible amounts of users, value and miners complying with the rebellious fork.

A large proportion of crypto asset projects are currencies or platforms subject to network effects and don’t coexist easily and therefore it may be laborious for multiple similar virtual currencies to achieve widespread usage. If different usage criterion is adhered to, they can exist simultaneously such as Bitcoin’s concurrent use alongside a fully anonymous currency to penetrate alternative markets.

The primary criteria for determining whether a crypto asset is competitive with another is use case similarity, consequently a fork with few modifications threatens the parent network. As copying code is cost efficient forking is common under open source licenses.

Bitcoin has forked multiple times comprising weathered repetitive alternative adoptions implemented by competing developers including BitcoinXT, Bitcoin Classic, Bitcoin Unlimited and Bitcoin Cash. The Bitcoin protocol established one megabyte as the maximum size of a transactions’ block limiting transaction validation speed and the network’s development.

Each fork seeks to increase throughput by altering the size of 10-minute blocks composing the blockchain and in August 2017 Bitcoin Cash developers guised as a Bitcoin protocol competitor duplicated the chain. Bitcoin Cash’s overarching competitive positioning astutely differentiates neutral airdrops from hostile spinoffs.

Bitcoin Cash increased block size from 1MB to 8MB increasing the processing of substantial amounts of transactions within the 10-minute period to further develop efficiency and cost efficiency.

Bitcoin Interest is a prominent fork enabling investors to earn interest by leveraging BCI coins and gained the interest and support of HitBTC and global digital asset exchange Okex regarding deposits, trading and withdrawal.

Bitcoin has clearly defined network peer consensus rules including miners and relay nodes agreeing to deterministically validate scripts, transactions and blocks. The rules state a transaction’s format, scripting language semantics, new coin forecasted growth and parameters including maximum block size.

Ethereum hard forked in 2016 due to disputes regarding $50mn ETH misappropriated for a smart contract project developed on the network. Consequently, Ethereum split into Ethereum and Ethereum Classic representing different ledgers, trade histories, and cryptocurrencies. Ethereum Classic amounted to 5% of Ethereum’s hash capacity and ETC price amounted to 3.5% of ETH’s price.

Yet Ethereum Classic and Bitcoin Cash indicated a serious threat to parent networks as the forked source code is disruptively identical to the original, referred to as hostile spinoffs. Antithetically neutral airdrops provide reserve currency holders with periodic passive income.

Ethereum also executed four hardforks to reduce network spam attacks including fork reversing the DAO’s $40m ether theft, implementing reduced long-term gas changes for Tangerine Whistle’s spam attack and enabling Spurious Dragon to utilize transactions and delete empty accounts.

All hardforks require peers to upgrade software and continue network participation. The DAO’s hardfork precipitated Ethereum Classic’s launch which has consequently executed 2 hard forks such as GasReprice replicating Ethereum’s hardfork to increase costs for under-priced EVM operation codes and prevent future spam attacks.

DAO’s contracts’ vulnerability provoked the proposition of a hard fork to edit Ethereum’s code and efficaciously eradicate blockchain’s transactions of the attackers. ETH had an additional hard fork during November 2016 to increase a particular contract call’s cost and address a potential denial-of-service attack. Furthermore, ETC forked during January 2017 while incorporating similar defence and add replay protection.

Crypto Airdrops are a novel paradigm in crypto asset distribution and can potentially address ICO/IEO/STO concerns including hyper-concentrated ownership in capped sales. A few token holders controlling a large proportion of the tokens within a pseudonymous network detracts from voting significance, compromises decentralization and precipitates a wealth transfer to a small minority particularly if staking is involved.

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